Much like thyroid disease and endometriosis, there are not many studies looking at an association between celiac disease and endometriosis. One study found the “risk of endometriosis in patients with [celiac disease] was 112/100 000 person” (Stephansson et el., 2011). Another noted that celiac disease “is common in this population group [women with endometriosis and infertility] (2.5%) and may be clinically relevant” (Aguiar et al., 2009). Another study noted a slightly increased risk of celiac disease in those with endometriosis (“Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%)”) (Seracchiolo et al., 2014). Some have had positive results on endometriosis symptoms from following a gluten free diet (Marziali et al., 2012).
On the flip side, celiac disease can present with symptoms similar to endometriosis. “Celiac disease has also been associated with chronic pelvic pain, including dysmenorrhea and deep dyspareunia” and “patients with atypical pelvic pain, particularly with GI components, may also benefit from screening” (Ory & Christie, 2013). This points out the importance of looking beyond the diagnosis of endometriosis with recurring symptoms in order to rule out other health issues that can mimic endometriosis symptoms.
Aguiar, F. M., Melo, S. B., Galvao, L. C., Rosa-e-Silva, J. C., dos Reis, R. M., & Ferriani, R. A. (2009). Serological testing for celiac disease in women with endometriosis. A pilot study. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology, 36(1), 23-25. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19400413/
Marziali, M., Venza, M., Lazzaro, S., Lazzaro, A., Micossi, C., & Stolfi, V. M. (2012). Gluten-free diet: a new strategy for management of painful endometriosis related symptoms. Minerva Chir, 67(6), 499-504. Retrieved from https://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/minerva-surgery/article.php?cod=R06Y2012N06A0499
Ory, S. J., & Christie, D. R. (2013). Reproductive effects of celiac disease. Contemporary OB/GYN, 58(4), 34. Retrieved from https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/reproductive-effects-celiac-disease
Seracchioli, R., Montanari, G., Mabrouk, M., & Nassif, J. (2014). Endometriosis: novel models, diagnosis, and treatment. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/236821
Stephansson, O., Falconer, H., & Ludvigsson, J. F. (2011). Risk of endometriosis in 11 000 women with celiac disease. Human reproduction, 26(10), 2896-2901. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/der263