Endometriosis outside of the pelvis

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Endometriosis is not confined to the pelvis. Endometriosis lesions have been found in multiple other areas in the body, including some strange places- like the nasal passage or the stomach wall (Mignemi et al., 2012; Mohamed et al., 2016). Andres et al. (2020) performed a systematic review of case studies of extrapelvic endometriosis and they found case reports of: 273 abdomen, 628 thoracic, 6 central nerve system, 12 extrapelvic muscle or nerve, and 1 nasal endometriosis. While this is not a comprehensive list of all the places endometriosis has been found, it does show that it can be found in many different places outside of the pelvis.

With abdominal endometriosis, if symptoms were noted, they “included a palpable mass (99%), cyclic pain (71%) and cyclic bleeding (48%)” (Andres et al., 2020). For thoracic endometriosis, symptoms included pain associated with menses, collapsed lung (pneumothorax), and blood in the sputum (hemoptysis) (Andres et al., 2020). The lesions in the thoracic cavity “favored the right side (80%)” (Andres et al., 2020). Symptoms can often be subtle and can be associated with other pathologies that may need to be ruled out as well.

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References 

Andres, M. P., Arcoverde, F. V., Souza, C. C., Fernandes, L. F. C., Abrão, M. S., & Kho, R. M. (2020). Extrapelvic endometriosis: a systematic review. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology27(2), 373-389. Retrieved from  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1553465019312567  

Mignemi, G., Facchini, C., Raimondo, D., Montanari, G., Ferrini, G., & Seracchioli, R. (2012). A case report of nasal endometriosis in a patient affected by Behcet’s disease. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology19(4), 514-516. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1553465012001082  

Mohamed, A. A., Selim, Y. A., Arif, M. A., & Albroumi, S. A. (2016). Gastric wall endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine47(4), 1783-1786. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrnm.2016.08.005